The Scientific Theatre, whose real name is Teatro Accademico Bibiena, took this name from the residents of Mantua since it was designed to accommodate performances, scientific experiments and scientific doctrinal expositions. Created by the Parma-native Antonio Galli Bibiena who was commissioned by Carlo Ottavio di Colloredo, the rector of the Accademia dei Timidi, the theatre was built between 1767 and 1769. Upon its completion on 3 December 1769 it was officially opened and a little more than one month after the inauguration a concert was performed here by the young Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (just 14 years old at the time) along with his father Leopold, who came to Mantua for the great composer's first Italian tour.
The Scientific Theatre has a bell-shaped plan with a commonly used structure that was invented in the 17th century, with multiple tiers of wood box seats. Antonio Galli Bibiena personally frescoed the inside of the boxes, while the facade was designed by Giuseppe Piermarini (with a room on the theatre's first floor dedicated to his name). Thanks to the genius of the architect Bibiena, the Scientific Theatre is considered the most accomplished example of rococo theatrical architecture, where music festivals, concerts and conferences continue to be held to this day.